Adrenal gland




Adrenal gland

Location: top of kidney as kidney cap

Size: 4-6 cm long and 2-3 cm wide

Divided into outer cortex and inner medulla

Hormones secreted by Adrenal cortex

  1. Glucocorticoid

  • Regulate blood glucose level
  • Stimulate gluconeogenesis
  • Enhance synthesis of aminoacids which are substrate for gluconeogenesis
  • Promote protein and nucleic acid metabolism
  • Regulated by ACTH
  • Acts as anti-inflammatory agents
  1. Mineralocorticoid

  • It is group of Steroid hormone (eg. Aldosterone), regulate concentration of mineral
  • Help in maintaining blood pressure
  • Help in Na+ reabsorption and cause excretion of K+, H+ and NH4+
  1. Gonadocorticoid

  • Sex hormone, stimulate gonads
  • Regulated by ACTH

Hormones secreted by Adrenal Medulla

  1. Epinephrine (adrenaline)

  • Increase rate of metabolism, heart rate and blood pressure
  • Increase glycogenolysis, respiration rate, O2 consumption
  1. Nor-epinephrine (Nor-Adrenaline)

  • Increase heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure
  • Enhance lipid metabolism
  • Relaxes smooth muscles of GI tract.

Adrenal gland